Tata Legacy: Story of an Indian MNC


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With an annual Sales revenue of USD 100 Billion - thats more than 5,00,000 Crores, TATA is one of the biggest Industrial conglomerates in the world.

No of Employees: 4,25,000
100 Operating companies; present in 80 countries; 58% of the revenue is from business outside India.

In business for last 145 years.

Philanthropic trusts (Charitable institutions in other words) hold 66% ownership of TATA holding companies. That means 66% of share holder income from TATA group goes to these trusts.
In addition to these, its mandatory for every TATA company to contribute a minimum of 4.5% of their profit to these Philanthropic trusts.
This unsual corporate philosophy has evolved from its legacy.

TATA Legacy:

Founded by Jamsetji Nusservanji Tata; started as a trading company in 1868 and then started textile manufacturing.

Jamsetji Tata is regarded as the "Father of Indian Industry".

J N Tata dedicated his efforts to fulfil three of his major visions: Set up an Iron and Steel company, set up electric power plants and set up a world class learning institution in India.

This vision of him itself was extra ordinary considering the fact that this was envisaged in second half of 19th century India (almost one and a half centuries ago)

TAJ Hotels: 1903
(Taj Mahal Palace and Tower in Colaba, Mumbai)
As per legend, Jamsetji Tata was denied permission - since he was an Indian - to enter a fancy hotel in Mumbai when he went there along with two business clients. This insult prompted him to build a world class hotel. It was the first hotel in India with electricity and was the most luxurious at that time. That was starting of the largest Hotels chain in India, TAJ Hotels.

After his death in 1904, his successor Dorabji Tata accomplished the task of taking forward the work started by JN Tata and turning his vision into reality.

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore: 1911
This became a cradle for developing some of the great visionaries and scientists of our country.
Later IISc was made a public institution by the government.

TATA Steel: 1907

Sir Frederick Upcott, Chief Commissioner of British Indian Railways, remarked to Charles Perin (a reputed American consultant), "Do you mean to say that the Tatas propose to make steel rails to British specifications? Why, I will undertake to eat every pound of steel they succeed in making?"

TATA did make steel and supplied to British operations in Mesopotamia (as per British specifications) which made a contribution to allied victory in world war 1.

Several years later (100 years to be specific), TATA took over Corus (Former British Steel).

Employee welfare: TATA was ahead of time in introducing employee welfare schemes.
Some of the employee welfare schemes became world's first (even before it became a practice in developed western world)

In 1880, TATA established Creshe facility in their factory for the benefit of mothers with young kids.

In 1886, TATA instituted a pension fund for employees.

In 1895, TATA introduced accident compensation scheme.

100 years ago, TATA introduced 8 hour working. (in 1912)

In 1901, TATA launched Provident fund scheme (51 years later, it became a law in the country)

In 1915, introduced free medical aid to employees.

IN 1920, TATA introduced annaul previlege leave scheme for employees (28 years later, it became a law)

1934, TATA started profit sharing Bonus scheme for the first time in India.

Nation building: TATA has promoted and continue to support several institutions of National importance.

TATA Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR)
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore
National Center for the Performing Arts
TATA Institute of Social Sciences
Lady TATA Memorial Cancer Hospital

These institutions were later converted to Public institutions by the Government due to their national importance (Tata trusts still continue their support to these institutions)

Once, Homi J Bhaba (The Architect of Nuclear Programme in India) asked TATA about what they can do to establish a world class scientific research center in India. The result was foundation of TATA Institute of Fundamental Research, a world renowned Institute for pure research in Natural sciences, Technology and Mathematics. TIFR laid the foundation for India's Nuclear Program.

Prof. Govind Swaroop, a Senior Scientist in TIFR, impressed upon TATA about the requirement to set up a telecsope facility in India for Space research. This created the GMRT (Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope) near Narayangaon in Pune - the largest in the world.
Scientists and Astronomers from world over use this facility to observe astronomical objects like Galaxies, Super Nova, Pulsars, Solar winds etc.

TATA started Civil aviation in the country.

Later Government of India took over TATA Airlines (JRD TATA vehemently opposed this move but Goverment had the power)
It was then split into Air India and Indian Airlines.

Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to save foreign currancy going out for import of cosmetics (but he was afraid of back lash from women in India) and there fore asked TATA to start a cosmetic company and craeted Lakme (Later TATAs sold of Lakme to Unilever).

New India Assurance Company was started by TATA was later taken over by Government due to Nationalisation policy.

Business accumen of TATA can be seen when in 1945 they started TATA Engineering and Locomotive Company by hiring some German Engineers who were jobless after second world war.

It required guts to bring German Engineers to British India in 1945.
 
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TATA Companies:

A
Advinus Therapeutics
C
Casa Décor
CMC
Computational Research Laboratories
D
Drive India Enterprise Solutions
E
e-nxt Financials
H
Hooghly Met Coke and Power Company
I
Indian Hotels
Indian Steel and Wire Products
Infiniti Retail
J
Jaguar Land Rover
JAMIPOL
Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company
L
Landmark
M
mjunction services
N
NatSteel Holdings
Nelco
Nelito Systems
P
Powerlinks Transmission
R
Rallis India
Roots Corporation
T
Taj Air
TAL Manufacturing Solutions
Tata Advanced Materials
Tata Advanced Systems
Tata Africa Holdings
Tata AG
Tata AIA Life Insurance
Tata AIG General Insurance
Tata Asset Management
Tata AutoComp Systems
Tata BlueScope Steel
Tata Business Support Services
Tata Capital
Tata Ceramics
Tata Chemicals
Tata Chemicals Europe
Tata Chemicals Magadi
Tata Chemicals North America
Tata Communications
Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consulting Engineers
Tata Cummins
Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company
Tata Elxsi
Tata Financial Services
Tata Global Beverages
Tata Housing Development Company
Tata Industrial Services
Tata Industries
Tata Interactive Systems
Tata International
Tata International AG
Tata Investment Corporation
Tata Limited
Tata Metaliks
Tata Motors
Tata Motors European Technical Centre
Tata NYK
Tata Petrodyne
Tata Pigments
Tata Power
Tata Power Delhi Distribution
Tata Power Solar Systems
Tata Power Trading
Tata Precision Industries
Tata Projects
Tata Quality Management Services
Tata Realty and Infrastructure
Tata Services
Tata Sky
Tata Sons
Tata Sponge Iron
Tata Steel
Tata Steel in Europe
Tata Steel KZN
Tata Steel Processing and Distribution
Tata Steel Thailand
Tata Strategic Management Group
Tata Technologies
Tata Teleservices
Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra)
Tatanet
Tayo Rolls
Telco Construction Equipment
The Tinplate Company of India
Titan Industries
TKM Global Logistics
TM International Logistics
Trent
TRF
TRL Krosaki Refractories
V
Voltas
W
Westland
 
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TATA trusts:

Established in 1932 by Sir Dorabji Tata, the elder son of group founder Jamsetji Tata, the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust and the Allied Trusts are one of India’s oldest and largest philanthropic foundations. The trusts offer monetary assistance to students and economically disadvantaged patients, make financial contributions to institutions and provide financial support to more than 600 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the country.

The trusts also provides financial succour for relief and rehabilitation to alleviate distress and suffering caused by natural and man-made disasters. In the event of large-scale calamities, they work collaboratively with the Tata Relief Committee (TRC).

Institutional grants
The trusts have promoted, and continue to support, several institutions of learning, research and culture in India. These include the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru; the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai; the Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai; the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai; the Tata Medical Center, Kolkata; the National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru; and the National Centre for the Performing Arts, Mumbai. The trusts have also helped in establishing the JRD Tata Ecotechnology Centre, Chennai.

NGO grants


The trusts make grants to NGOs in six social development sectors:
  • Natural resource management and livelihoods: The portfolio addresses the interlinked issues of sustainable and equitable management of natural resources, and the enhancement of the livelihoods of the rural poor. Its sub-thematic areas of engagement include household food security, ecological security and establishment of institutions.
  • Urban poverty and livelihoods: This portfolio supports projects that address issues of in-country migration, informal sector livelihoods, urban planning and governance, and employability.
  • Education: The education portfolio supports a series of projects in the fields of elementary education, adolescent education, child protection and women’s education.
  • Health: The trusts have made contributions in creating and upgrading medical infrastructure and healthcare facilities across India. They have also supported research studies in alternative systems of medicine such as Ayurveda. Besides aligning with the specific needs of the country, this portfolio supports endeavours in sub-thematic areas such as community-based health interventions, non-communicable diseases with a focus on cancer, violence against women as a public health issue, and disability.
  • Civil society, governance and human rights: This portfolio is dedicated to the protection of human rights as guaranteed under the Indian Constitution, strengthening civil society and the promotion of transparent and participatory governance at the grassroots.
  • Media, art and culture: This portfolio extends support to art and culture projects in rural and urban areas. It lays special emphasis on promoting arts scholarships and building archival facilities; protecting and conserving India’s cultural heritage and dying art forms; supporting research and development activities of the arts, supporting development media projects as well as developing proactive areas through folklore.
Individual grants
The trusts give merit- and means-based educational as well as medical grants to individuals:
  • Medical: Financial help is extended to individuals for the treatment of diseases and to treat other health problems.
  • Education: The trusts’ annual scholarship programmes offer scholarships for higher education in India and abroad, travel grants for studies abroad, and for attending conferences and sports activities. Means-based grants are also given to deserving students.
· The Allied Trusts
The Allied Trusts are primarily smaller trusts; while some have a specific mandate, the rest are broad-based in their approach to grant-making. The JRD Tata Trust gives scholarships to students for studies in India while the JRD and Thelma J Tata Trust focuses on the health and education of women and children. The Jamsetji Tata Trust, the RD Tata Trust, the Tata Education Trust and the Tata Social Welfare Trust concentrate on overall developmental issues. The Sir Dorabji Tata Trust administers the Allied Trusts.
· The JN Tata Endowment for the Higher Education of Indians: The first of the Tata trusts, it was established in 1892 by group founder Jamsetji Tata to offer loan scholarships to individuals for higher studies abroad. Annually, around 120 students are selected every year from across India as JN Tata scholars.
· The Lady Tata Memorial Trust: The trust was established in 1932 by Sir Dorabji Tata in memory of his wife, Lady Meherbai, who died of leukaemia in 1930. It grants scholarships (both national and international) supporting research in leukaemia and blood-related diseases, and assists in the alleviation of human suffering from other diseases. It also supports institutional research carried out by recognised Indian institutions, research laboratories and leading scientific / medical centres doing scientific research work. A recent initiative has been the instituting of an annual Young Researcher Award, which entitles the recipient to a five-year postdoctoral research grant.
· The Lady Meherbai Tata Education Trust: Also established in 1932, this trust grants scholarships to young Indian women graduates from recognised Indian universities for pursuing higher studies abroad in the field of social work and public health.
 
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TATA Administrative Services (TAS):

TAS, formerly known as the Tata Administrative Service, was instituted half a century ago along the lines of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). Over the last 50 years, it has churned out over 475 cadres. Of these, more than 200 still work for the Tata Group.

Some of the TAS products are leaders like R.K Krishnakumar (from 1963 batch of TAS) who joined TAS after his Masters from Madras University. Now he is a Director in the board of TATA holding company, a member of the Group Corporate Center (GCC), Chairman of some and also Director of a few TATA Companies.

Evolution of TAS:

A few years ago, a TAS recruit would straight away head to those CEO cabins in the group to work as an executive-assistant.

But there is a rethink now.

Due to a fear that the elite talent pool cannot face the challenges of growth as the group is growing fast in many sectors and growing in global stature; Tata management realised that the elite nature of TAS is creating a negative effect - A realisation that the TAS is creating non practical thinkers who are analytical and having managerial skills but without leadership qualities. TAS talent was thought as Elitist, rigid and intellective.

TATA has started re inventing TAS:

Now TAS recruits are send to remote villages; cut of from company facilities, guest houses and modern communication systems and asked work on practical Projects for rural development coordinated by Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. This Rural exercise shows them the reality on their own back yard. They are then send to different projects around the world and then they work on real time projects in group companies.

Additionally TAS Managers are taken through a development plan that lasts for five years.
 
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My father is a writer of Hindi.I still remember when I was a child,he talked heavily about 'Bharat Bhawan' in Bhopal which was managed by "Ford Foundation".And as I grew I wanted to know more about Ford Foundation and that is where I started admiring those enterprises which "Gave back to society" a major chunk of what they earned.

Doing constant research brought me close to the TATAs whom I consider world's greatest company just for the sheer fact that ,'they have always given back to society.'May it be TATA Cancer hospital,TATA NGOs,TATA research centres,they have given back to the Indian society unlike any other entrepreneur.As an Indian they have made all of us proud unlike anyother: THANK YOU TATA.


Autosafari,thanks buddy for your effort and time,you have enlighten us alot about TATA,their grop companies and work ethic.Thanks again.


THE X-OVER
 
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That's a lot of information buddy and thanks for sharing this. Very nice effort and was worth reading.

I have always been a big fan of TATA as a group.
 
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That's a lot of information buddy and thanks for sharing this. Very nice effort and was worth reading.
Autosafari,thanks buddy for your effort and time,you have enlighten us alot about..
Thanks Xover and Singh.

I was aware of these things for a long time and then thought sharing it in TAI. Took some time to consolidate and re check the info.

Here is an info about Mergers and Acquistions.

View attachment TATA Group - M&A.doc
 
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Does Ratan Tata looks like a boss of billion dollar firm or like a celebrity ?
To me he just looks like a trustworthy familiar man,like a good next door Uncle.
That is almost enough reason for me to buy a Tata car or Tata product again.
Since my childhood to till this date I always skip noisy leyland buses and wait for Tata bus Many times I got late for school due to same reason.
I hate ksrtc just beacause they are mostly leyland and rarely Tata.
recent experience in Passports seva kendra was so good, again Tata managing.
when people abroad ask me which car I own -Tata.
That is some silly Tata fan in me.
 
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Thanks a lot autosafari for such an informative thread. The respect for Tata and pride of owning a Tata product has gone up manyfolds.
 
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Does Ratan Tata looks like a boss of billion dollar firm or like a celebrity ?
To me he just looks like a trustworthy familiar man,like a good next door Uncle.
That is almost enough reason for me to buy a Tata car or Tata product again.
Since my childhood to till this date I always skip noisy leyland buses and wait for Tata bus Many times I got late for school due to same reason.
I hate ksrtc just beacause they are mostly leyland and rarely Tata.
recent experience in Passports seva kendra was so good, again Tata managing.
when people abroad ask me which car I own -Tata.
That is some silly Tata fan in me.
Ah !! Jayadev, this was the same when I was school you know all the state road transport buses were from Leyland with lot of noise and I used to see only one are two buses with TATA engine and I really used to wait to travel in those. TATA engine bus used to have some jerks in it goes slow and once it speed up it used to go like rocket and its noise was so less.

Fortunately I had spent some time being a associate of TATA Motors bus manufacturing in my career and I am glad with that.

Thanks Xover and Singh.

I was aware of these things for a long time and then thought sharing it in TAI. Took some time to consolidate and re check the info.

Here is an info about Mergers and Acquistions.

View attachment 65241
@Safari, a great compilation about TATA, if I count from the list given by you they are close to some 100 different companies of TATA and I can say we do not find somebody else in the country who made so many companies and into too diversified fields. Kudos to TATA & Mr.Ratan Tata for driving the company into the new century making it a Internationally well known Indian company[clap]
 
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Hey autosafari, that's the great compilation of the info about TATAs.

After reading this thread, I remember one of the saying that Ratan Tata said. I just happen to read it somewhere I dont remember.

Reporter: Mr. Ratan Tata, why Tatas are not making as much money as Reliance.
Mr. Ratan Tata: "We are industrialists. They are businessmen."

A big bow to a might man Mr. Ratan Tata. [thumbsup]

Thanks again autosafari.
 
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@Autosafari:
Please accept my bow for the hard work you did.
Thanks a lot autosafari for such an informative thread. The respect for Tata and pride of owning a Tata product has gone up manyfolds.
@Safari, a great compilation
Hey autosafari, that's the great compilation of the info..
"We are industrialists. They are businessmen."
Thanks Vipul, nozzlering, Gurrala74 and dharmesh.

Glad to know that you people liked my effort.

Just wanted to share some information which will help us to understand about this great industrial journey and the contribution in nation building.
 
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J N Tata (3rd March 1839 - 19th May 1904)
Founder of TATA Group.

Born in Navsari in Gujarat.
Graduated from Elphinstone College, Bombay in 1858.

City of Jamshedpur is named after him.

In 1883, J N Tata introduced ring spindles in his textile mills when the new technology was not yet started general use in America (US), where it was invented.

At that time he experimented the system of a Salaried Managing Director, reporting to a functional Board of Directors. This he did in his own company long before the term corporate governance was even conceived.

Some quotes by J N Tata:

"We do not claim to be more unselfish, more generous or more philanthropic than other people. But we think we started on sound and straightforward business principles, considering the interests of the shareholders our own, and the health and welfare of the employees, the sure foundation of our success". –Jamsetji Tata

"All taxation in India bears most heavily on the poor and most lightly on the well-to-do classes. Those whose life and property receive the greatest protection from the government have the least to pay for it, while those with nearly nothing to lose have often to forgo their meals to pay the dues of government" –Jamsetji Tata

"Freedom without the strength to support it and, if need be, defend it, would be a cruel delusion. And the strength to defend freedom can itself only come from widespread industrialisation and the infusion of modern science and technology into the country’s economic life".–Jamsetji Tata

Quotes on J N Tata:

"No Indian of the present generation had done more for the commerce and industry of India". — Lord Curzon, the viceroy of India, following Jamsetji Tata’s demise.

"He was not a man who cared to bask in the public eye. He disliked public gatherings, he did not care for making speeches, his sturdy strength of character prevented from fawning on any man, however great, for he himself was great in his own way, greater than most people realised. He sought no honour and he claimed no privilege, but the advancement of India and her myriad peoples was with him an abiding passion". — The Times of India on Jamsetji Tata’s death.
 
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In search of steel:

A 25 year effort by TATA in search of Steel is a fascinating story.

Way back in 1882 a report by a German geologist, Ritter Yon Schwartz aroused Jamsetji Tata’s interest in the black metal. Initial stint with several iron ore areas around Nagpur was disappointing.

Jamsetji journeyed America in order to gather the best expertise and the most advanced technologies for his plant. He studied the coking processes at Birmingham and Alabama, and visited reputed ore markets like the one in Cleveland. Then he proceeded to procure the services of Kennedy, Sahlin & Co. the best firm in the field of metallurgical engineering. At Pittsburgh, he met Julian Kennedy, one of the partners, who warned him of prolonged investigative procedures and mammoth expenditure. But Kennedy was so impressed by his zeal that he directed Jamsetji to Charles Page Perin, a surveyor of international repute, a historic meeting took place between the two which Perin recapitulated later thus:
“I was poring over some accounts in the office when the door opened and a stranger in a strange garb entered, He walked in, leaned over my desk and looked at me fully a minute in silence. Finally, he said in a deep voice, ‘Are you Charles Page Perin?’ I said, ‘Yes’. He stared at me again silently for a long time, and then slowly he said, ‘I believe I have found the man I have been looking for. Julian Kennedy has written you that I am going to build a steel plant in India. I want you to come to India with me, to find suitable iron ore and coking coal and the necessary fluxes. I want you to take charges as my consulting engineer. Mr. Kennedy will build the steel plant wherever you advise and I will foot the bill. Will you come to India with me?’
‘I was dumbfounded, naturally. But you don’t know what character and force radiated from Tata’s face. And kindliness, too. ‘Well’, I said, ‘Yes, I’d go.’ And I did”. Before coming to India himself, he deputed his partner, a geologist, C M Weld, to prospect for raw materials.

In the summer of April 1904, an adventurous team made its way towards Chanda - C M Weld, the expert surveyor, Jamsetji’s son Dorabji Tata, and Shapurji Saklatwala. Like expert hunters they crossed the shikhar territory. Braving the danger of predators and primitive conditions, they hunted for the precious metal. According to Weld’s meticulous investigations Chanda should yield deposits of both iron ore and limestone. But unfortunately they found that the Chanda district lacked suitable coal, and its iron ore was meager and too far scattered.

The failure of the Chanda project left Weld expecting to be sent back to America immediately, but he had mistaken Jamsetji’s intentions. Having aims set on viable national alternatives, such material losses hardly affected Jamsetji. Weld was requested to stay back.

The team got their next clue for exploration from an unexpected quarter.

During a chance visit to the Museum outside the Nagpur Secretariat, Dorabji spotted dark patches on a geological map of the Central Provinces that indicated the existence of iron deposits. It was a place named Durg, 224 km from Nagpur.

As Weld and Dorabji climbed the hills of Dhalli and Rajahara they felt their footsteps ring with a metallic sound. The area was the richest storehouse of iron ore. With an iron content of 67%, it fell only 3% short of the maximum theoretical yield. But this plain too had to be abandoned, as iron ore is useless without steady supplies of limestone, coking coal and water; and there was no water there. Nevertheless this effort did not go in vain. Fifty years later, the same site would be used for the gigantic Bhilai Steel Plant (of Steel Authority of India)

An unassuming letter from an Indian geologist, P N Bose was another change of course. Bose had found rich deposits of iron ore in the state of Mayurbhanj. There were limestone and the coal fields in the nearby districts of Jharia and Raniganj. Moreover, the then Maharaja of Mayurbhanj was willing to extend his support too. Srinivas Rao, an assistant to Weld, was sent to conduct the preliminary survey of the area. Once he confirmed Bose’s findings, the experts, Weld and Perin, reached Mayurbhanj. The tribal ironworkers of Mayurbhanj led the expedition through dense forests. Finally, in the majestic Gorumahisani hill a veritable treasure of iron ore, with an iron content of 60% was discovered.

The Gorumahisani hills are situated in the heart of the dense forest, hence the workers had to be located at a junction which would be close to the source of the three main materials -iron ore, coal and limestone. A place called Sini did match their requirements but the lack of water disqualified it, and the team had to move on.


Gorumahisini hills
Gorumahisani hills.jpg


On a chilly morning in December 1907, Weld and Srinivas made for the riverbed where the Subarnarekha crossed the Bengal Nagpur Railway branch. After plodding downstream for a while, they sighted a black trap-dike crossing the river diagonally, thereby making a perfect pick-up weir. They were wandering in the vicinity of Sakchi - at the confluence of the rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai which together would never run dry - and a few kilometers away could be sighted the Kalimati railway station. This brought the triumphant end of the 25 year long saga.
On 27th February 1908, the first stake was driven into the soil of Sakchi.


Subernarekha river
Subarnarekha river.jpg


[source: Tata Steel Archives]

Sakchi, a harsh bush land was transformed to a well designed, livable township now known as 'Jamshedpur'.

Sakchi - Beginning of Township construction.
Sakchi - construction.jpg

It was the Founder Jamsetji Tata’s vision that provided the inspiration to build the township. Before he died, Jamsetji had conjured up a concrete image of the future town to his son, Dorabji Tata.
“Be sure to lay wide streets planted with shady trees, every other of a quick growing variety. Be sure that there is plenty of space for lawns and gardens. Reserve large areas for football, hockey and parks. Earmark areas for Hindu temples, Mohammedan mosques and Christian churches.”
 
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