Steering System - Types, Pros & Cons


Thread Starter #1
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No rocket science to present here.
Only the basics of Steering System. Let me start & expecting everyone to participate & contribute.

Types of Steering System
1) Rack & Pinion type
1.jpg

Advantages:
• simple construction
• economical and uncomplicated to manufacture
• easy to operate due to good degree of efficiency
• contact between steering rack and pinion is free of play and even internal damping is maintained
• tie rods can be joined directly to the steering rack
• minimal steering elasticity compliance
• compact (the reason why this type of steering is fitted in all European and Japanese front-wheel drive vehicles)
• the idler arm (including bearing) and the intermediate rod are no longer needed
• easy to limit steering rack travel and therefore the steering angle

Disadvantages:
• greater sensitivity to impacts
• greater stress in the case of tie rod angular forces
• disturbance of the steering wheel is easier to feel (particularly in front-wheel drives)
• tie rod length sometimes too short where it is connected at the ends of the rack (side take-off design)
• size of the steering angle dependent on steering rack travel
• this sometimes requires short steering arms resulting in higher forces in the entire steering system
• decrease in steering ratio over the steer angle associated with heavy steering during parking if the vehicle

2) Recirculating Ball type
2.jpg

Advantages:
• Can be used on rigid axles
• Ability to transfer high forces.
• A large wheel input angle possible – the steering gear shaft has a rotation range up to ±45°, which can be further increased by the steering ratio.
• It is therefore possible to use long steering arms.
• This results in only low load to the pit-man and intermediate arms in the event of tie rod diagonal forces occurring.
• It is also possible to design tie rods of any length desired, and to have steering kinematics that allow an increase in the overall steering ratio iS with increasing steering angles. The operating forces necessary to park the vehicle are reduced in such cases.

Disadvantages:
• Higher cost
• It is heavier than Rack & Pinion steering system
• Steering feedback is not responsive
• Dead point - at a certain point the steering feedback will be zero.

These two are the important Manual steering systems.
Power assisted steering systems to follow soon.

Cheers.
 

350Z

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Sure an helpful thread. Will benefit many. Thanks for spending your time to compose this precise article. [thumbswink]

Drive Safe,
350Z
 
Thread Starter #4
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Thanks Akash & 350Z.
Preparing to update this thread with Power assisted steering system.
 

Varun560061

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Hi, Thanks for providing the great information. Could you pls tell me can we fix an power steering and will it be reliable?
 
Thread Starter #6
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Could you pls tell me can we fix an power steering and will it be reliable?
Yes. EPS (Electronic Power Steering) is easy for retro-fitment & the stock manual steering rack can be used.
Electric motor driven hydraulic power steering system requires complete steering rack replacement.
Engine driven Hydraulic PS requires lot of work.

In every case reliability depends on the execution & the product quality.
 
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Could you tell the pros and cons of a hydraulic power steering?
Also is it true that nowadays they are being replaced by electrically assisted power steerings?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a electric power steering over a hydraulic one?
 
Thread Starter #10
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Could you tell the pros and cons of a hydraulic power steering?
Also is it true that nowadays they are being replaced by electrically assisted power steerings?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a electric power steering over a hydraulic one?
Hydraulic Power Steering:
Pros
*No advantages in cars. But its power for Heavy vehicles the 'hydraulic power' itself is an added advantage.
*For trucks, Hydraulic power steering is cheaper than EPS
Power assistance is at Steering rack / gearbox, so a lighter steering column
*Almost all parts are serviceable

Cons
*Heavier than EPS
*More response lag than EPS (due to backlash in construction)
*Engine driven pump takes a part of crankshaft power & affect FE
*Maintenance - in terms of consumables (oil top-up in case of leakage)
*System turns heavier than manual steering when the power assistance fails

EPS:
Pros
*Cheaper than HPS (for cars)
*Light weight
*Variable response in modern EPS system (speed dependent system which varies the steering response. i.e., lighter at slow speeds for easy operation & Heavier at high speeds for stability)
*Almost zero maintenance required
*No power loss to engine, no effect on FE
*Uses the old school manual Steering rack, no complicated system / mechanism in steering rack

Cons
*Many non-serviceable parts
*Power assistance unit is mounted on steering column, so a heavier column


Very informative article. Nice job Mr. Boss!
For which car? HPS or EPS?
I don't have the cost details, but I hope Ilango could help us.
 
Thread Starter #14
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I was asking whether i can fit an eps, 800 does not have an eps.....
I would say not to invest on EPS for M800. Being a light vehicle it doesn't require a PS.
For sure EPS conversion will cost nothing less than 10k INR (minimum). Instead you can use the money in other upgrades.
 

350Z

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Agree with Mr.Boss. Spending more than Rs.10,000 on steering upgrade alone will not be the best idea. Personally, I find the car's steering to be quite direct and fairly light in spite of being non-powered.

Drive Safe,
350Z
 
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